English grammar – Comparatives and Superlatives basic introduction: –
Adjectives and adverbs can be used to compare similarities or differences amongst things, people, places, actions… When 2 things are compared we use the comparative form; when one thing is compared to a full category, we use the superlative form. These forms, as you will see, depending on the number of syllables in the adjective or adverb. There are also other ways to make comparisons using other expressions. On the TOEIC, you will be tested on your knowledge of the way to use these forms.
Below is a chart with the different forms of both the comparative and superlative used in Grammar
|1 syllable||Fast||Faster (+ than)||The fastest|
|2 syllables (ending in –y)||Easy||Easier (+ than)||The easiest|
|2 syllables (other endings) or more||Normal
|More/less normal (+ than)
More/less intelligent (+ than)
|The most/least normal
The most/least intelligent
Worse (+ than)
Farther/further (+ than)
- This machine is faster than the previous model.
- She seems happier than before, now that her manager is giving her more responsibility.
- That is the most unbelievable story I’ve ever heard!
- The quality of their products is worse than it was before.
- I believe that’s the farthest I’ve ever been from my target objectives.
Other comparatives expressions
Here are other ways to express the idea of comparison. Look at the following structures:
-‘As + adjective/adverb + as’ (comparative of equality)
- These products aren’t as efficient as the other brand’s products.
- They walked as quietly as they could in order not to interrupt the filming.
-‘One of the –est things’ (always followed by a plural)
- That book you sent me is one of the best stories I’ve read in years!
-‘the –er, the –er’
- The slower you pay, the longer you wait for delivery.
‘less + adjective + than’ (comparative of inferiority)
- The students are less motivated after their exams than how they were at the beginning of the school year.