Introduction to English Grammar – Linking Words
In order to ensure the reader’s full attention, it is essential to inculcate appropriate connectors to connect one idea with the other. There are different categories of linking words which serve specific purposes. Therefore, it is important to understand the usage of the word (contrasting, adding new information, expressing cause and effect, etc.), and whether or not a word fits into the structure of the sentence. Below there are certain linking words specified with some appropriate examples.
First(ly), second(ly), third(ly), before, previously, earlier, then, next, finally, lastly, the former/the latter.
- Firstly, I’d like to present the current production method at our factory.
- Secondly, I will show how this new method can increase productivity.
- Of the two types of production methods mentioned, only the latter gives operators greater decision-making powers.
Both…and, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also, whether…or, between…and, instead (of)…
- Both Sarah and Sam are available.
- Either the manager or the sales reps are available.
- Neither the sales reps nor their manager is available.
- We can’t be sure whether the sales manager is available or not.
- Instead of calling, why don’t you send an email?
Adding another point
Also, too, as well, in addition (to), additionally, furthermore, moreover.
- Besides telephones, the company produces transmitters, as well.
- The company produces transmitters in addition to telephones.
Even though, (al)though, despite, in spite of, however, nevertheless, whereas, on the one hand, …on the other hand.
- Even though Amanda had signed the contract, she wanted them to change some of the terms.
- Despite Amanda’s signing of the contract, she wanted them to change some of the terms.
- The company thought everything was clear, whereas Amanda didn’t.
Expressing consequences or cause and effect
Because (of), since, so, so that, therefore, consequently, thus, as a result.
- Since you didn’t call back, I had to make the decision on my own.
- You didn’t call back; therefore, I made the decision on my own.
- You didn’t call back so I made the decision on my own.
The real situation
In fact, as a matter of fact, actually, in reality.
- In fact, we don’t really offer 1000 free tablets to first-time customers.
Things to look out for on the Bright
Parallel construction with expressing alternatives (and in other sentence structures, as well)
- The research project will need both time and money. (‘both’ + noun…‘and’ + noun)
- For some people, learning English is either too difficult or too time-consuming. (‘either’ + adjective…’or’ + adjective)
‘Also’ is generally at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence, whereas, ‘too’ and ‘as well’ are usually at the end.
- Customers are also provided with free parking.
- Customers are provided with free parking, too.
‘In addition’ can stand alone (followed by a ‘,’) or be followed by ‘to’ if there is a noun after.
- We have already requested a full refund. In addition, we will ask the company for an apology.
- In addition to the refund we requested, we will also ask the company for an apology.
‘Even though’, ‘although’ and ‘though’ are followed by a subject and a verb.
- Even though he had negotiated a good deal, he still wasn’t satisfied.
‘Despite’ and ‘in spite of’ are followed by nouns
- Despite his well-negotiated deal, he still wasn’t satisfied.
‘Because’ is followed by a subject and a verb whereas ‘because of’ is followed by a noun
- He missed his connection because of the train strike.
- Because the trains were on strike, he missed his connection.
‘Actually’ is a false cognate which means ‘in fact’. It does NOT mean ‘presently’ or ‘now’.
- Contrary to what some people say, we are actually one of the highest paying employers in this sector and don’t have any trouble finding new recruits.
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